A Moʻolelo for ʻUmi: A Famous Aliʻi of These Hawaiian Islands.
E nā hoa makamaka o ke ala ʻūlili, welina mai kākou. Ua hiki maila ʻo Hilinama i nei ʻāina pali loa, a mau nō hoʻi ko kākou hahai ʻana i ke kuamoʻo o ka mea nona kēia moʻolelo, ʻo ia nō ʻo Umi-a-Liloa. Ma kēia mahele o ia moʻolelo, e ʻike ana kākou i ka lilo ʻana o ka ʻāina a puni o Hawaiʻi iā Umi a pēlā pū me nā hana a ke aliʻi a me kona kahuna ʻo Kaleiokū e mākia ai a paʻa nō hoʻi ke aupuni o Hawaiʻi nei. Wahi a kekahi kākau moʻolelo kahiko kaulana o Hawaiʻi nei, ʻo Samuel M. Kamakau, “I ke kuapapa nui ana o ke aupuni o Hawaii ia Umi-a-Liloa ua kaulana kona inoa mai Hawaii a Kauai, aole alii e like me kona noho aupuni ana, ua malama oia i na elemakule a me na luahine a me na keiki makua ole; a ua malama i na makaainana, aole pepehi kanaka aole aihue. He alii haipule o Umi-a-Liloa noho aupuni ana nolaila, makemake iho la na ‘Lii Moi o na mokupuni e, e lawe aku i ka lakou mau kaikamahine punahele i mau wahine na Umi-a-Liloa; He anaina wahine alii he lehulehu ka Umi-a-Liloa, a ua huipuia me na kaikamahine a ka noa, a ua lilo o Umi-a-Liloa i kupuna no na ʻLii, a ua lilo i kupuna no na makaainana, aole he makaainana o Hawaii e olelo mai ana aole he kupuna no makou o Umi-a-Liloa, a ina o ke kanaka e hoole mai, no ka ike ole i na kupuna” (Ke Au Okoa. Dec. 1, 1870). No laila, e nā hoa heluhelu, e hoʻomau aku kākou i ke kuamoʻo o ke aliʻi kaulana o ko kākou kulāiwi aloha ʻo Hāmakua.
Dear companions of the steep trails, greetings to you all. The lunar month of Hilinama has arrived here in the land of the tall cliffs, and here we continue to follow along the pathway of one for whom this moʻolelo was written, Umi-a-Liloa. In this portion of our moʻolelo, we will come to see all the lands of Hawaiʻi Island come under the control of Umi, as well as the actions of the aliʻi and his kahuna, Kaleiokū, to establish and solidify their governance over Hawaiʻi. According to one of the famous authors of Hawaiʻi’s moʻolelo of old, Samuel M. Kamakau, “When the kingdom of Hawaiʻi became united under Umi-a-Liloa, his name became famous from Hawaiʻi to Kauaʻi. There was no chief who had governed as he did. He cared for the old men, the old women, and the parentless children. He cared for the commoners, and there was no murder or theft allowed. Umi-a-Liloa was a pious chief in his reign, and so the great chiefs of the other islands desired to bring their favorite daughters to become wives of Umi-a-Liloa. Numerous were the chiefly wives of Umi-a-Liloa, and combined with the young women free of kapu, Umi-a-Liloa became an ancestor of chiefs and an ancestor of commoners. There is no commoner of Hawaiʻi who can say that Umi-a-Liloa is not an ancestor of theirs. And if there is someone who disagrees, it is because they simply do not know of their ancestors” (Ke Au Okoa, Dec. 1, 1870). Therefore, oh reading companions, let us continue on along this pathway of the famous chief of our beloved homelands of Hāmākua.
Hoi mai na kanaka o Hakau, mai kuahiwi mai, me ka laau kauila o ke akua o ua o Hakau. E noho aku ana o Umi, me kona mau kanaka; alaila, ike iho la na kanaka i ko lakou Alii, ua make. Aloha no lakou; aka, aole aloha nui; no ka mea, ua ike lakou i ka hana a ia Alii, i kona wa i noho Aupuni ai, he luku wale i na kane maikai, me na wahine maikai, ke lohe ia Alii i ka olelo mahaloia. Ina e mahaloia o mea, no ka maikai o ke poo, i ka hele a pakiikii, kuku na maha, ma ke poo e okiia’i a kaawale, ina hoi he maikai ma ke kino, no ka pololei o ka oiwi, e oki pu ia ke kino, ina hoi ma ke kua o ka wahine ka maikai, ma ke kua no e okiia’i.
Ua mahaloia kekahi keiki e kekahi wahi kahuna o ua o Hakau, a ua lohe o Hakau, a no ka mahaloia o ua keiki la no ka maikai o ka oiwi, kena aku ia i kekahi kanaka ona e kii, kii ia aku la, a hiki mai, he wahi keiki maikai io no. Ooki ae la ke Alii, a moku pu mawaena, a make iho la ua keiki la, lohe ae la kona makuakane ponoi, ua make kana keiki, pane ae la ua makuakane nei, “Ooki pahupu ae la oia i kuu keiki, pela e oki pahupu ia’i kona noho Aupuni ana, a ka la kauila o ke akua, o kona la ia e make ai." Ua ko ka olelo a keia wahi kahuna.
I ka po o Muku, kapapa kaulua, penei ke kapapa ana o kaulua. Hele aku la na Kahuna me na kanaka e pili ana i ua poe Kahuna la, a hiki i kahi o ka waa, hookoeleele ma na niao o ka waa. Ina e hele aku kekahi kanaka, hopu mai na kanaka, pepehi a make, hoolou ae la i ka makau, ka inoa o ua makau la, o (Manaiakalani,) ina aole e loaa ke kanaka, o ka Limukala o ke kai, ka mea e hawele ai a paa ka makau, lawe aku a ka Heiau. Ua lilo keia kauila me ke kapapa ana o kaulua na Kaleioku, no kana Alii no Umi. Lilo o Hawaii a puni ia Umi, a noho Aupuni ae la ia. Iloko o kona noho Aupuni ana, haawi ae la ia i aina no kona poe hoa hele, lilo o Kau ia Omaokamau; lilo o Puna i ke aikane a Umi; lilo o Hilo ia Kaleioku; lilo o Hamakua ia Piimaiwaa; lilo o Kohala ia Koi; lilo o Kona ia Ehu; pau ae la na Moku o Hawaii i ka haawiia e Umi no lakou.
Ku mai o Kaleioku, a wehewehe mai i kona manao imua o ke Alii, penei kana i wehewehe ai, “E ke Alii, e hoolohe mai, ke ku nei au imua o kou alo, a me ke alo o kou mau kanaka, ke hoolilo nei oe e ke Alii, i Kahuna au nou, a o oe hoi ke Alii, e like me kau mea i ike ai no’u ma kuu ano Kahuna ana, oiai ua hooko mai ke Akua, e noho Aupuni oe, ua lanakila ae oe mailoko o kou wa ilihune, a ke lilo nei oe i Alii ai Moku no Hawaii nei, a e noho ana na kanaka malalo o kou malu, ina e ikeia he pono kau hana e ke Alii imua o na kanaka, e mau aku no kou noho Aupuni ana, ina pono ole kau hana ana e like me ko kaikuaana, he hookuli ka make, he hoolohe ke ola.” Alaila, hoolako ae la o Kaleioku i ua Alii nei, me kekahi kanaka ponoi ona, oia o Omaokamau.
Kena ae la o Kaleioku, e ku ua Alii nei iluna, ku ae la ia, a me Omaokamau, ewalu paha anana ke kaawale mawaena o laua. He hoailona keia a Kaleioku i hana aku ai i ke Alii, i mea e maopopo ai ia Kaleioku ka paa o kona Aupuni, me ka paa ole, ina e ike o Kaleioku i ka paa o kana hana ana; alaila, e hiki ia Kaleioku, ke makia a paa kona Aupuni, ina e pono ole kana hana ana, aole e hiki ia Kaleioku, ke makia.
A ia laua e ku ana, o ke Alii, a me Omaokamau, aia ia Omaokamau ka Laau-palau, o ka inoa o ua laau la, o Kaniaupiookalani [E ke hoa heluhelu, e hoʻomanaʻo mai i kēia lāʻau pālau, ʻo ia nō ka lāʻau pālau a Liloa i hāʻawi aku ai iā Akahiakuleana no kā lāua keiki, ʻo ʻUmi, a na Akahiakuleana i hāʻawi aku i ia lāʻau iā ʻŌmaʻokāmau; MK], aole e pahu wale ia ia laau, aia no ka wa e pahu ai ia laau, a pa ka aina; alaila, pahu a ma ke ano hoailona a na Kahuna. Olelo aku o Kaleioku ia Omaokamau, “E Omaokamau e! O ko ikaika no a pau loa!! Pahua i ka piko o ke Alii!!!” No ka mea, ua ike o Kaleioku ia Omaokamau, he kanaka ikaika i ka pahu Maka-ihe. Pahu aku la o Omaokamau, o wahie ka ai, o ka lele aku la no ia o ka laau, a kokoke i ka piko, o ke ku aku no ia, puka pu ma ke kua, e pale ae ana ke Alii, hala ma kekahi poohiwi, hala ka ihe mahope, me ka lele no, e hopu aku ana keia ma ka welau o ka ihe, paa no i ke Alii. Ike mai la o Kaleioku i ka hala ana o ka ihe, a me ka paa ana ma ka welau, olioli nui iho la ia.
Alaila, i aku o Kaleioku i ke Alii, “E ke Alii, ke ike nei au, ua pono kau hana ana imua o ko’u mau maka, e like me ka’u mea i ao aku ai ia oe, e ke Alii, a me kou mau kanaka ma ka panalaau, i mea e paa’i kou Aupuni. Ke hoolilo nei au ia’u iho i keehana wawae nou, aole mea nana e kaili aku kou noho Aupuni ana. Ke i mai nei ko Akua ia’u, e like me kau pale ana i ka ihe, a hala, pela oe e noho ai i ka pono o kou Aupuni, a hala oe i ka make. E like me kou hopu ana aku i ka welau o ka ihe a paa, pela e paa’i ka noho Aupuni ana o kau keiki, a me kau moopuna, a pua, a mamo, a kawowo loa aku.” A pau ae la, ka Kaleioku wehewehe ana.
(Aole i pau)
Kākau ʻia e J. H. Z. Kalunaaina, Mal. 8-15, 1862
Hoʻopuka hou ʻia a ʻunuhi ʻia e Kealaulili
The people of Hakau returned from the uplands with their sticks for readorning the akua of Hakau, and ʻUmi and his people remained there. They then saw that their aliʻi was dead, and they expressed their regrets, but their aloha for him was not great, for they had seen the deeds of that aliʻi during his reign. Whenever the aliʻi heard words of praise towards beautiful men or women, he would simply slaughter them. If someone was praised, perhaps, for the beauty of their head, being flat and upright on the sides, then it was their head that was cut off. If perhaps it was their body that was praised, for being of a sturdy physique, then their body was cut up. And if it were the back of a woman that was praised, then her back was cut up.
Once a young boy was praised by a kahuna of Hakau. When Hakau heard this praise of the boy for his handsome physique, he commanded one of his attendants to go fetch the boy. When the boy was fetched and brought before him, Hakau saw that he was a truly handsome young man. The aliʻi then killed the boy, cutting him in half. When the boy’s true father heard that his son had been killed, the father responded, saying, “He has cut my son in half, and that is how his reign shall be cut in half. On the day that his akua is readorned with feathers, that is the day he will die.” And so the words of this kahuna were fulfilled.
On the night of Muku, it was time to kāpapa ulua [catching the “ulua” for a sacrifice], and this is how the “ulua” was caught. The Kāhuna and the attendants of these Kāhuna went to their canoe and began striking a beat on the sides of the canoe. If a man came by, then the attendants would catch and kill him, and hook his body with a large hook. The name of this hook was Manaiakalani. If, however, a man was not obtained, then limu kala from the sea was bound to the hook and taken to the heiau. These ceremonies of the kauila and the kāpapa ulua were taken on by Kaleiokū for his Aliʻi, ʻUmi. All of Hawaiʻi Island was now under the control of ʻUmi, and so he established his government. During his reign, ʻUmi gave ʻāina to his trusted traveling companions: Kaʻū went to ʻŌmaʻokāmau; Puna went to the aikāne of ʻUmi; Hilo went to Kaleiokū; Hāmākua went to Piʻimaiwaʻa; Kohala went to Kōī; and Kona went to ʻEhu. All the districts of Hawaiʻi were given to them by ʻUmi.
Kaleiokū then stood up and expressed his thoughts before the Aliʻi, ʻUmi. This is what he expressed, “Oh Aliʻi, listen to me. I stand before you and before the presence of your people. You are making me, oh Aliʻi, your Kahuna, and you the Aliʻi, as you came to know from me and my works as a Kahuna before. And now the Akua have fulfilled this; you will now reign. You prevailed in your time of destitution, and you are now the Aliʻi ʻAi Moku of Hawaiʻi. The people will now live under your protection, and if your actions are seen as pono by the people, your reign will continue on. If your actions, however, are not pono, like those of your older brother, ‘he hoʻokuli ka make, he hoʻolohe ke ola’ [to disregard these words will bring death; to heed these words will bring life].” And then Kaleiokū prepared the Aliʻi with one of his own personal attendants, that is, ʻŌmaʻokāmau.
Kaleiokū commanded the Aliʻi to stand along with ʻŌmaʻokāmau, with eight anana (fathoms) between them. What Kaleiokū was about to conduct would signify whether his kingdom would be firmly established or not. If Kaleiokū saw that his [ʻUmi’s] actions were firm, then Kaleiokū would be able to firmly establish his kingdom. If, however, his actions were not pono, then Kaleiokū would not be able to establish it.
While the two of them, the Aliʻi and ʻŌmaʻokāmau, were standing, ʻŌmaʻokāmau had with him the lāʻau pālau (war club), the name of which was Kanīʻaupiʻookalani [Oh reading companion, remember that this lāʻau pālau is this war club of Liloa that he gave to Akahiakuleana for their son, ʻUmi, and it was Akahiakuleana who gave this lāʻau to ʻŌmaʻokāmau; Editor’s Note]. This lāʻau was not used for any purpose other than when the land was obtained [by a chief], and then it was thrust forth as a test by the Kahuna. Kaleiokū then said to ʻŌmaʻokāmau, “Oh ʻŌmaʻokāmau! With all of your strength!! Thrust forth [the lāʻau] to the piko of the Aliʻi!!!” Kaleiokū knew well that ʻŌmaʻokāmau was very skilled in the art of spear throwing, and so ʻŌmaʻokāmau hurled the lāʻau, utilizing an attack style called “wahie.” The lāʻau flew directly toward the piko of the aliʻi. If it hit him, it surely would have pierced through to his back. But the Aliʻi deflected it, sending the spear past his shoulder, and as it flew behind him, he caught the spear by its tip. It had been secured by the Aliʻi. Kaleiokū witnessed the spear being dodged and caught by its tip, and he rejoiced in this.
Then Kaleiokū said to the Aliʻi, “Oh Aliʻi, I see that what you have demonstrated before my eyes is pono, and that you have done as I have instructed you and your attendants, oh Aliʻi, in the art of spear throwing. This is what will make your kingdom firmly established. I will now become a step beneath your feet. No one shall usurp your reign over this kingdom. The Akua have spoken to me thus; just as you deflected the spear until it passed you, so shall your reign in this kingdom be pono until you pass into death. And just as you caught the tip of the spear and held it firmly, so too shall the governance of this kingdom be held firmly by your keiki (children), moʻopuna (grandchildren), pua (flowers, descendants), mamo (posterity), and very last kawowo (seedling, progeny).” And with that, Kaleiokū’s speech concluded.
(To be continued)
Written by J. H. Z. Kalunaaina, Mar. 8-15, 1862
Republished and translated by Kealaulili